All Article Summaries
These article summaries are written by TAP staff members. TAP’s purpose for this section of the site is to present information, points of view, research, and debates.
Invention Value, Inventive Capability and the Large Firm Advantage
Large firms have an advantage in innovation. A new model shows that large firms are better at commercializing new inventions. The advantage is less in sectors where innovators can easily license technologies to other firms.
Misreading Campbell: Lessons for Warhol
Rereading the case in which the Supreme Court first recognized transformative fair use could help the Supreme Court resolve tension between derivative rights and transformative fair use in Andy Warhol Foundation v. Goldsmith.
Sequential Uses of Copyrighted Materials: Transforming the Transformative Use Doctrine in Andy Warhol Foundation v. Lynn Goldsmith
The case of Andy Warhol Foundation v. Lynn Goldsmith arose when one artist’s copyrighted work was used to create a second artist’s work. The key factor is the effect of the alleged infringement on the value of the first work.
Twenty Years of U.S. Digital Copyright: Adapting from Analog
From 2001 to 2021, digital technologies have challenged U.S. copyright law. Key copyright concepts affected include the scope of exclusive rights, fair use, and liability of online service providers for infringement.
The Inequalities of Innovation
Gains from innovation and opportunities to innovate are not distributed equally. Sometimes, the patent system helps the poor become richer, but can also help the rich become richer.
Antitrust and Innovation Competition
Some antitrust policymakers are recognizing the importance of innovation competition, including nonprice competition and technological change. Antitrust policymakers must update their analysis to avoid errors.
Measuring the Private and Social Returns to R&D: Unintended Spillovers versus Technology Markets
Traditional methods of estimating returns to research and development (R&D) ignore gains from selling or licensing intellectual property. Counting these gains shows they are an important source of returns to R&D.
Memes on Memes and the New Creativity
Memes challenge basic assumptions underlying copyright law. Creators of memes want to be copied. Creators may use copyright selectively to prevent changes to a meme by a select few.
It’s Time to Update Section 230
The 1996 Communications Decency Act (CDA) makes online platforms immune from liability for harmful content posted by third parties. Platforms should enjoy immunity only if the platform takes reasonable steps to prevent harm.
Standing and Privacy Harms: A Critique of TransUnion v. Ramirez
The Supreme Court has ruled that consumers lack standing under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) until their credit reports were sent to third-party businesses. The Court’s test for standing is unsatisfactory.